Subject matter experts (SMEs) who teach courses, write textbooks, and contribute to computer-based learning environments are often “disconnected” from the knowledge they use to solve problems. Because much of that knowledge has become automated, SMEs can have difficulty articulating it or even realizing that it needs to be articulated. \
Research on instructional design, educational technology, and problem solving tends to emphasize instructional manipulations at the expense of a careful consideration of what learners need to know.
School of Psychology Professor Richard Catrambone has developed a task analysis technique called TAPS (Task Analysis by Problem Solving) to elicit the knowledge that SMEs have, and that learners need, to solve problems in a domain.